Myopia: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis and Treatment
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Nearsightedness (myopia) occurs when distant objects appear blurry, but close objects are distinct. For example, you can read a map without difficulty but have difficulty driving a car.

Myopia Symptoms

Among the symptoms and indications of myopia are:

  • Eyestrain
  • Migraines
  • Trouble seeing distant objects like road signs or a whiteboard/blackboard at school

Young children with myopia may not complain about their blurred vision; therefore, eye exams and vision evaluations are crucial for young children. Some children are born nearsighted, while others become nearsighted as teenagers.

Myopia Causes

Light rays must pass through the cornea and lens of the eye in order for you to see distinctly. Together, the cornea and lens bend light to reach the retina, the rear layer of the eye. The retina then transmits a signal to the brain that enables vision.

With nearsightedness, the geometry of your eye prevents light from properly bending, so light is directed in front of the retina instead of on it. For instance, the cornea at the front of your eye may be excessively steeply curved, or your eye may be abnormally extended front to back. In both instances, the light rays miss the retina. When light is not properly focused on the retina, blurred vision results.

Myopia Risk Factors

If a parent is nearsighted, there is a higher likelihood that their offspring will also be nearsighted. However, a parent is not required for their offspring to be nearsighted. Doctors do not fully comprehend why some individuals are nearsighted. There are probably many contributing factors, and genetics is only one of them.

Too much time spent indoors can increase a child’s likelihood of developing myopia. Conversely, studies indicate that a child’s risk is reduced by spending more time outdoors in natural light.

Myopia Diagnosis

As part of a thorough eye exam, an ophthalmologist will diagnose nearsightedness.

In patients that are old enough to read the letters on an eye chart, your ophthalmologist can measure your glasses prescription and diagnose nearsightedness using a device called a phoropter.

In a patient who is too young to discern the letters on an eye chart, your ophthalmologist can use a retinoscope device to determine the direction of light within the eye. This allows an ophthalmologist to determine the prescription for a young child’s spectacles.

Myopia Treatment

Contact lenses and eyeglasses are common and simple methods to treat myopia. They aid in focusing light on the retina in the rear of the eye, allowing for clearer vision. As your eyes change, you will require new prescriptions over time.

When purchasing glasses or contacts, there are numerous options to consider. Discuss with your ophthalmologist which lens options best suit your vision and lifestyle requirements.

Refractive procedures. In some instances, refractive surgery can correct nearsightedness in adults. Refractive laser surgery and refractive lens exchange are the two principal forms of refractive surgery. In refractive laser surgery, the cornea is reshaped to alter how light passes through it. Here are some of the most frequent practices:

  • LASIK
  • Epi-LASIK
  • PRK
  • SMILE

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